During the Guatemalan civil war, which lasted from 1960 to 1996, the state applied repression on a massive scale, particularly targeting the Mayan population. The conflict was at its most intense in the 1980s and disproportionately affected indigenous communities. 200,000 people died in this conflict, with more than 40,000 disappearances. Longstanding issues of unfair land distribution with wealthy, mainly European-descended, citizens, and foreign companies had dominated control over much of the land – leading to conflicts with the rural indigenous poor.